Has Many

The HasMany relationship creates a one-to-many relationship between two models. A great example of this is a user has many posts.

Relationship models

Continuing with the user and the posts example. Following is the User model with hasMany relationship.

import { column, BaseModel, hasMany, HasMany } from '@ioc:Adonis/Lucid/Orm'
import Post from 'App/Models/Post'

export default class User extends BaseModel {
  @hasMany(() => Post)  public posts: HasMany<typeof Post>}

The Post model must have a foreign key column userId defined on it.

import { column, BaseModel } from '@ioc:Adonis/Lucid/Orm'

export default class Post extends BaseModel {
  public userId: number

Custom foreign key

By default, the foreignKey is the camelCase representation of the parent model name and its primary key.

Parent Model NamePrimary KeyForeign Key

However, you can also define a custom foreign key.

@hasMany(() => Post, {
  foreignKey: 'authorId',
public posts: HasMany<typeof Post>

Custom local key

The local key is always the primary key of the parent model, but can be defined explicitly.

@hasMany(() => Post, {
  localKey: 'uuid',
  foreignKey: 'authorId',
public posts: HasMany<typeof Post>

Table structure

Following is an example table describing the relationship at the database level.

Lucid models doesn't rely on the database level foreign key constraint. It just want the columns to be present and must be of same data types.

Preloading relationship

The preloading API for a has many relationship is already covered in the introduction guide.

Persisting relationship

Along with the API covered in the introduction guide, a has many relationship also has methods for persisting multiple rows.


const posts = await user.related('posts').createMany([
    title: 'Adonis 101',
    body: 'Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text'
    title: 'NodeJS 101',
    body: 'Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text'


Similar to createMany, but instead accepts an array of related model instances.

const post = new Post()
post.title = 'Adonis 101'
post.body = 'Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text'

const post1 = new Post()
post1.title = 'NodeJS 101'
post1.body = 'Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text'

const posts = await user.related('posts').saveMany([post, post1])